NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

,

NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

Name

Capella university

NURS-FPX 6105 Teaching and Active Learning Strategies

Prof. Name

Date

Overview of the Course

This assessment entails a concise summary of the course of diabetes self-management education for elderly people with diabetes and crafting evaluating strategies to ensure the course plan is completed effectively. For designing a course on self-management education for older diabetics, a learning theory such as social cognitive theory was selected to educate patients on diabetes and its self-management as nurse educators could become role models for patients and demonstrate practical self-care behaviors (Muhajirah, 2020). Moreover, the assessment also focused on the diversity of the targeted audience to tailor educational plans to their multiple needs. Additionally, the course discussed various strategies to resolve conflicts in the classroom audience with diverse backgrounds. 

The course further delves into classroom and learner management to promote accomplishing the desired goals of diabetes self-management. After discussing the theories, this assessment highlights the integration of teaching strategies, techniques, and learner outcomes for the target audience. The barriers to learning will be highlighted. This is followed by the assessment strategies designed to evaluate the progress of the educational session for diabetics. 

Application of Social Cognitive Theory

The learning theory selected and applied in assessment one for the course audience of diabetes self-management education was Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The SCT stresses observational learning and modeling behaviors to promote a healthy change. Moreover, it emphasizes that people can understand and learn certain behaviors by observing their surrounding community and imitating their lifestyles and attitudes (Govindaraju, 2021). This theory also improves cognitive behaviors, such as improved motivation and attention by social learning. Hence, it positively impacts teaching and learning by fostering enhanced cognitive interactions through social engagement (Govindaraju, 2021).

Rationale for Why and How SCT is Applied

In the diabetes context, this learning theory can promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles required for diabetes management as educators can become practical examples of the right health attitudes and behaviors.  Moreover, the community support groups where diabetics have successfully managed their glycemic levels through self-efficacy can promote observational learning among elderly people (Smith et al., 2019).

Additionally, providing step-by-step guidelines to monitor blood glucose levels, insulin administration, and implementing lifestyle changes will lead to imitation and modeling in diabetics’ lives. The cognitive processes of SCT, such as utilizing resources on diabetes management such as brochures and visual aids, can reinforce the significance of the individual role in diabetes self-management (Ghoreishi et al., 2019). These reasons are primary factors for selecting SCT as a learning theory to guide teaching plans and strategies and promote learning. By setting real-world examples of modeled behaviors, promoting social interaction with diabetics, and improving health literacy through a step-by-step guide, this theory was effectively applied in the course (Kim & Utz, 2019).

Explanation of Learner Outcomes

This theory will also help accomplish the learner outcomes for diabetics. By applying this learning theory, diabetics will understand the basic pathophysiology of diabetes, the role of HbA1c, and how insulin works (Świątoniowska et al., 2019). However, through the practical performance of measuring glycemic levels, diabetics will learn to self-monitor their blood glucose levels using glucometers and other technologies (Fabris & Kovatchev, 2019). Lastly, the self-management strategies will be well comprehended by patients as they interact with an interdisciplinary team of dieticians, physical therapists, physicians, and nurses to observe the holistic approach of medication management, meal planning, and exercise strategies (Williams et al., 2022). 

Implementation of Learning Methods and Techniques

The teaching plan based on SCT is developed by employing a thorough understanding of how patients can learn through observation, imitation, and modeling of their surrounding people. By implementing the SCT, nurse educators can address the cultural, social, and environmental factors that impact learning and help educators make observational learning more efficient for diabetic patients (Thojampa, 2019). The knowledge of SCT was effectively used to promote effective learning through social interactions and modeling behaviors. Moreover, cultural diversity was found among the target audience; some patients are Asian and American, and others belong to Africa. They are seen to have engaged in unhealthy eating habits due to rich cultural food.

The teaching plan discusses the communication methods for patients with diverse backgrounds patients. It successfully provides culturally competent educational material to address the cultural sensitivity that can be provoked during self-management education (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Moreover, these diverse factors, like cultural differences, are vital to understanding beforehand to tailor the educational course on diabetes self-management considering these factors. For instance, some patients with diabetes prefer educational sessions with visual aids to facilitate learning. In contrast, others need interactive sessions and hands-on activities to understand and practically implement the knowledge gained entirely (Liu et al., 2022).

Nurse educators must also utilize the strategies developed in Assessment one on resolving conflicts. These strategies include integrating interdisciplinary team collaboration to address diverse patient needs and give a holistic educational session from meal planning and medication management to managing mental health in the entire education course (Handtke et al., 2019). Moreover, a patient-centered approach is vital to respect patients’ preferences and values in diabetes management (Banerjee et al., 2020). Applying these principles and knowledge would result in educating patients with self-management behaviors that promote practical implementation and improvements in blood glucose levels.

Integration of Appropriate Learning Strategies, Techniques and Outcomes

To successfully deliver diabetes self-management education among diabetics, appropriate learning strategies and techniques must be opted for. These strategies are required to draw desired outcomes of self-management among older diabetics. For this purpose, the learning strategies chosen are virtual learning through telehealth. Telehealth uses telecommunication services to provide care treatments and consultations to patients (Kaveh et al., 2021). With telehealth, healthcare professionals can equip their patients with the same care treatments, guidelines, monitoring, and prescribing using online communication platforms such as mobile health apps or patient portals. The subject audience of this course is older adults with diabetes who require a self-management approach to manage their diabetes. It is the best learning strategy for this age group as it promotes e-learning (Kaveh et al., 2021). 

Moreover, patients who face mobility issues or live in remote areas, making it challenging to acquire in-person educational sessions, can effectively access DSME from the comfort of their homes. The technique used in this learning session will be sharing educational videos, workshops, group discussions, hands-on experiences, and PowerPoints on diabetes self-management (Johnsen et al., 2021). It also includes one-on-one consultations where healthcare professionals provide education on appropriate guidelines and community resources, such as community support groups developed for patients with diabetes mellitus (Zheng et al., 2019). Ultimately, the patients will acquire self-management behaviors and attitudes remotely. They will practice them consistently with the social support of community groups and patient educators.  They will share their milestones in every educational session nurse educators conduct remotely. Additionally, they will guide any changes required to improve their self-management behaviors (Lee et al., 2019).

Assumptions for Choices Made

The assumptions on which the choices above of learning strategies and techniques are made include that older diabetic patients need comfort and care simultaneously. They are subject to additional stress and lack motivation if the educational session course is established in person. This will lead to further damage to their health due to uncontrolled diabetes as a result of a lack of awareness and motivation. Through telehealth sessions, older people can learn from home and implement self-management strategies without traveling (Kaveh et al., 2021). Therefore, the choice made “telehealth sessions for DSME in older adults with diabetes” is based on the audience’s age factor, their health needs, and desired outcomes.

Integration of Best Practices for Classroom and Learner Management

The course on diabetes self-management education seeks to implement the best practices substantiated by evidence-based classroom and learner management strategies. The section below discusses the classroom and learner management practices well applied in the DSME educational session course.

Classroom Management Strategy

Jacob Kounin’s classroom management theory is the selected approach integrated into the course for diabetics. This theory says that classroom behaviors and attitudes can be disciplined by fostering interactive sessions promoting education and learning among learners. Furthermore, the theory emphasizes the use of organized and well-structured educational material to spur motivation among learners, which promotes learning and decreases the probability of creating chaos and disturbance within the learning environment (Walker & Barry, 2020). This theory is integrated within the DSME course for diabetics. It will be shared with interactive educational activities and quizzes to encourage learning and promote self-management education on diabetes. However, implementing this classroom management strategy requires preparing and gathering educational material that suits learners’ health needs, which calls for multitasking for teachers or educators (Walker & Barry, 2020). 

Learner Management Strategy

The learner management strategy employed in the DSME course for diabetics is Vygotsky’s social development theory. This theory recognizes the significance of social interactions and collaboration in learning and education. Moreover, it embraces the role of cultural tools such as language, writing, and other symbolic systems in cognitive development. Patient educators can effectively use these tools to create a culturally inclusive learning environment and address the cultural sensitivity that arises in this course (Taber, 2020). Furthermore, it introduced the zone of proximity, highlighting the need for peer or guiding principles to promote learning when independent learning ability is impossible. This strategy enabled patients with diabetes to coordinate with the nurse educator and promoted diabetes self-management education (Saxby et al., 2019).

Conflicting Data and Other Perspectives

Some critics disagree with Kounin’s classroom management theory. For instance, some critics argue that Kounin’s theory lacks robust empirical evidence, and this theory provides little research on the effectiveness of the specific techniques. Others suggest that Kounin’s theory emphasizes teaching behaviors and actions, overlooking the role of student characteristics and external factors contributing to classroom management (Walker & Barry, 2020). Likewise, the areas of conflicting data related to Vygotsky’s social development theory include that this theory requires determining precise boundaries of the learner’s zone of proximal development. Some critics suggest that identifying the specific range of tasks a learner can perform with assistance but not independently is subjective and context-dependent (Bulle, 2021).

Evidence-Based Practices to Enhance Learner Motivation

It is essential to create a sense of motivation and willingness to promote consistent behavior in diabetes self-management. The educator can create a spur of motivation among diabetic patients in several ways. Following are the evidence-based practices that are incorporated to enhance learner motivation:

  • Integration of the principles of self-determination theory is crucial to empower patients with diabetes. For instance, patients with diabetes are educated on how they can manage their diabetes by regulating their glycemic levels through self-management of lifestyle and medication behaviors (Phillips & Guarnaccia, 2020).
  • Integrating culturally responsive teaching can foster a sense of belonging and promote motivation as diabetics feel their values, preferences, and cultural beliefs are not disrespected (Sinclair et al., 2020).
  • Using diabetes self-management trackers and mobile apps to stay consistent with self-management behaviors. The apps can notify patients about medication intake time, practice physical exercise, and healthy meal and snack times. Furthermore, these apps can be connected with healthcare professionals’ workplaces to promote care coordination and monitoring. This tracking and monitoring by healthcare professionals help diabetics be more passionate and motivated about self-care for their diabetes (Kusnanto et al., 2019).

These strategies are evidence-based practices well incorporated into our course for older diabetic patients. Through strategic planning, the goal of self-management education can be effectively accomplished.

Barriers to Learning in Educational Programs

When educational programs are designed and implemented, there can be several barriers that teachers and learners encounter. These barriers hinder effective learning and disturb goal accomplishing. The barriers can be linguistic cognitive due to growing age, diverse educational audiences, time constraints, technological barriers, cultural issues, lack of motivation, and poor digital and health literacy (Toschi & Munshi, 2020). When the telehealth educational program for diabetics was designed, the barrier faced was limited digital literacy.

Moreover, cultural differences due to diverse educational learners were identified. The patients were from an older age group with diabetes, requiring self-management education to manage their diabetes. They needed more digital and health literacy and adequate education on using digital devices properly. For this purpose, nurse educators played a significant role in educating the audience using digital technology to facilitate telehealth sessions and promote learning to accelerate health literacy (Sinclair & Abdelhafiz, 2020).

NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

Various strategies are employed to address the encountered barriers. These strategies addressed the low health literacy and tackled cognitive challenges experienced by older audiences. The interactive and multisensory learning approach was effectively introduced within the course, including visual aids, interactive activities, and discussions to enhance memory retention (Adu et al., 2019). This strategy was likely to enable diabetics to understand educational content on self-management effectively and achieve the learning outcome of improving self-care behaviors (Kim et al., 2019).

Another strategy that was helpful in addressing the barrier of limited health literacy included promoting Health Literacy Focussed Communication (HLFC). This approach enables patient to understand diabetes as the nurse educator communicates in a manner that promotes the patient’s ability to grasp complex processes and terms easily. It also aims to address the language barriers by incorporating plain and simple language to facilitate patient understanding  (Kim et al., 2019). 

The technological barriers and cognitive issues are tackled effectively by creating personalized learning plans for diabetics. These customized plans are supposed to take individual issues and barriers to educational sessions into consideration. This requires tailored learning plans for patients by considering their diverse needs. Moreover, the patient can be provided with individualized coaching to address the patient’s health needs and preferences (Powers et al., 2020).

Areas of Uncertainty and Knowledge Gaps

Areas of uncertainty and knowledge gaps persist while educating a specific audience. For instance, understanding the audience’s digital and health literacy level is essential to comprehend the educational materials and content required to suit learners’ needs. Moreover, the knowledge gaps, such as patients’ cultural backgrounds, are needed to tailor the educational plan with cultural sensitivity and inclusive content (Shahin et al., 2019). Other knowledge gaps encountered during the learning program can be related to the inability to understand motivational factors and preferences of audiences such as diabetics and whether the patients can be consistent in implementing self-management educational behaviors to improve health outcomes of chronic conditions (Shahin et al., 2019).

Assessment Strategies

The assessment strategies are described to evaluate the progress of educational sessions and to consider the unique needs, preferences, and challenges of diabetics in the audience. Various assessment strategies can be utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational course on self-management education. One such approach is telehealth platform interaction metrics, where the nurse educator can assess patient engagement with the telehealth platform and monitor their participation in discussion forums, frequency of logins, and completion of online activities to gauge ongoing engagement (Abimbola et al., 2019). Another assessment strategy is to evaluate patient’s ability to monitor and manage their blood glucose levels. For this purpose, patients are encouraged to record blood glucose readings and report to nurse educators. The alleviation of these measurements, compared to initial readings before the course began, depicts the efficacy of the educational session as the patients implement the learned self-care behaviors in daily life (Holt et al., 2021). Furthermore, the brief quizzes and polls can be used to evaluate patients’ understanding of educational sessions and promote engagement during telehealth sessions. This will guide nurse educators about the lacking areas of patients’ understanding to tailor further sessions according to their literacy level and understanding pace (Kusnanto et al., 2019). 

Evaluation of Achievement of Learning Outcomes

The achievement of learning outcomes from diabetes self-management education sessions can be evaluated by conducting a formative assessment of continuous monitoring of patients’ understanding through discussions and reflective assignments after each session. Furthermore, the nurse educator can implement summative assessments at the end of the course to evaluate the overall achievement of self-management education (Powers et al., 2020). This can be done by taking a comprehensive exam or viva on telehealth. The results will reveal the level of health literacy achieved as a result of this educational session. The intended outcomes are learned when the patients score high in assessments or exams and discuss their daily life and their impact on blood glucose levels (Powers et al., 2020).

Integration of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Educational Offerings

There is a pressing need to integrate cultural competence in nursing and educational offerings as patients come from diverse backgrounds, such as varied cultures and languages. The culture dramatically impacts patients’ health through their beliefs, lifestyles, morals, and values. Certain cultures involve practicing traditional healing medicines and delaying medical interventions until their life is at stake (Lin & Hsu, 2020). Other cultures impose unhealthy lifestyles through cultural food and lifestyles, which deteriorates people’s lives slowly.

Therefore, integrating culturally competent care and education is necessary to improve health outcomes for these people (Lin & Hsu, 2020). The audience for this course is culturally diverse and requires a culturally competent educational session. The nurse educator added culturally competent ways of addressing cultural sensitivities related to lifestyle and diabetes management. These included creating a patient-centered educational plan respecting their cultural values and educating them about diabetes in a way that does not disrespect patients’ cultural customs and beliefs (Oikarainen et al., 2019). 

The evidence-based articles chosen above show their relevance to cultural competency in nursing and healthcare as they consider cultural considerations and address patients’ cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and practices. Moreover, both articles were published in the last five years, showing their currency. Additionally, these research papers utilize evidence-based practices in cultural competence, such as using culturally tailored educational materials and incorporating community health workers and interpreters. The trustworthiness of the evidence can be evaluated by the published journals, which are peer-reviewed, showing its authenticity. Moreover, the authors must be well-qualified and equipped with knowledge on the subject. The evidence is peer-reviewed, and the authors are strongly affiliated with nursing institutes.

Summary

This assessment includes the complete course plan designed for elderly diabetic patients on diabetes self-management education. The learning environment best suited for this audience is telehealth services for virtual learning. This course plan is based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) learning theory, which promotes learning through observation and modeling behaviors. Moreover, the assessment discussed the classroom and learner management strategies using different theories, such as Kounin’s classroom management theory and Vygotsky’s social development theories.

Kounin’s classroom management theory advises teachers to create an inclusive and engaging environment to avoid disturbances. Moreover, the Vygotsky’s social development theory promotes social interaction. This theory introduced the zone of proximity concept, which encourages people to seek guidance from mentors to perform tasks that are impossible to accomplish individually. These theories are followed by conflicting data, where we analyze how critics argue about management strategies. Moreover, the strategies for enhancing learners’ motivation are discussed including using mobile apps, empowering patients with self-determination theory, and practicing culturally competent teaching in the course.

Furthermore, the teaching strategies, techniques, and learning outcomes are described, where patients will learn through PowerPoints and other interactive activities such as quizzes and polls. The assessment also discussed the potential barriers to educational sessions and how they must be tackled by using different strategies. These strategies include the use of health literacy-focused communication, interactive activities multisensory approach and personalized learning plans. Additionally, the assessment types of formative and summative strategies are discussed to evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes in diabetic patients. Lastly, the significance of cultural competence, which is vital in addressing cultural sensitivities in healthcare and educational courses, is highlighted. Nurses must use culturally competent strategies to integrate healthcare principles without disrupting patients’ cultural beliefs and values.

References

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Adu, M. D., Malabu, U. H., Malau-Aduli, A. E. O., & Malau-Aduli, B. S. (2019). Enablers and barriers to effective diabetes self-management: A multi-national investigation. PLOS ONE14(6), e0217771. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6550406/ 

Banerjee, M., Chakraborty, S., & Pal, R. (2020). Diabetes self-management amid COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews14(4), 351–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.013

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 Fabris, C., & Kovatchev, B. (2019). Glucose monitoring devices: Measuring blood glucose to manage and control diabetes. Academic Press.

Ghoreishi, M.-S., Vahedian-shahroodi, M., Jafari, A., & Tehranid, H. (2019). Self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes: Education intervention base on social cognitive theory. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews13(3), 2049–2056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.04.045 

Govindaraju, V. (2021). Multicultural education A review of social cognitive theory from the perspective of interpersonal communication. Multicultural Education7(12), 2021. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5802235

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NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

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Johnsen, H. M., Briseid, H. S., Brodtkorb, K., Slettebø, Å., & Fossum, M. (2021). Nursing students’ perceptions of combining hands-on simulation with simulated patients and a serious game in preparing for clinical placement in home healthcare: A qualitative study. Nurse Education Today97, 104675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104675

Kaveh, M. H., Faradonbeh, M. R., & Kaveh, S. (2021). Telehealth impact on biomedical, psychosocial, and behavioural outcomes in patients with diabetes older than 50 years: A systematic synthesis without meta-analysis. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X2110522. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633×211052222

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NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

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Oikarainen, A., Mikkonen, K., Kenny, A., Tomietto, M., Tuomikoski, A.-M., Meriläinen, M., Miettunen, J., & Kääriäinen, M. (2019). Educational interventions designed to develop nurses’ cultural competence: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies98(1), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.06.005

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NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

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NURS FPX 6105 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan

Toschi, E., & Munshi, M. N. (2020). Benefits and challenges of diabetes technology use in older adults. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America49(1), 57–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2019.10.001

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